Статьи

Глиняные светильники из греко-римского Мемфиса

Аннотация

DOI 10.31696/2618-7302-2020-4-70-85
Авторы
Аффилиация: Институт Востоковедения
младший научный сотрудник
Журнал
Раздел Исторические науки и археология//Древний Египет
Страницы 70 - 85
Аннотация академии наук на Ком-Тумане (Мемфис, Египет). Бóльшая часть этих светильников была выполнена в специальных формах-матрицах, и лишь одна — на гончарном круге. Для производства светильников были использованы различные сорта местных египетских глин. Многие из них украшены различными декоративными мотивами, такими как пальметты, дельфины, факелы, и предположительно, «македонский щит». Ареал аналогичных светильников покрывает территорию всего Египта; равным образом они встречаются среди материалов археологических раскопок некоторых сопредельных стран. Мемфисские светильники, которым посвящена настоящая статья, были обнаружены в переотложенных слоях, поэтому для уточнения их датировки были привлечены аналогии с других памятников. Они позволяют отнести изучаемые предметы к Птолемеевскому и Римскому периоду (III в. до н. э. — III в. н. э.). Археологический контекст светильников указывает на то, что их могли использовать в быту и в храмах для освещения помещений. Светильники свидетельствуют о жизнедеятельности на территории памятника в греко-римский период, что уже не раз демонстрировали другие источники. Исследования археологической керамики и папирусов, найденных на городище и его некрополях, показали, что даже после основания новой столицы — Александрии — Мемфис не был заброшен и продолжал существовать как крупный административный и культовый центр на протяжении нескольких столетий, включая период римского завоевания Египта. Статья включает в себя каталог 15 светильников с описаниями и иллюстрациями.
Для цитирования: Ярмолович В. И., Чепель Е. Ю. Глиняные светильники из греко-римского Мемфиса. Вестник Института востоковедения РАН. 2020. № 4. С. 70–85. DOI: 10.31696/2618-7302-2020-4-70-85
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Статья

DOI: 10.31696/2618-7302-2020-4-70-85

TERRACOTTA OIL LAMPS FROM GRAECO-ROMAN MEMPHIS

© 2020 Victoria I. Yarmolovich, Elena Yu. Chepel[1]

The article explores 15 terracotta oil lamps found during the archaeological excavations of the Centre for Egyptological Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences at Kom Tuman (Memphis, Egypt). The majority of these lamps were made in moulds, and only one — on potter’s wheel. Various types of local Egyptian clays were used for the production of the lamps. Many of the lamps are decorated with various ornaments, such as palms, dolphins, torches, and, possibly, the ‘Macedonian shield’. Similar lamps were widespread in all the territory of Egypt; equally, such lamps appear among archaeological finds in the countries neighbouring with Egypt. The Memphite lamps under study were found in mixed layers and, therefore, we have compared them with analogous lamps from other locations in order to obtain more secure dating. Based on the parallels, we date the lamps to the Ptolemaic and Roman Periods (3rd century B.C. — 3rd century A.D.). The archaeological context of the lamps indicates their possible use in households and/or in temples for illumination of indoor spaces. The lamps are archaeological evidence for the existence of active everyday life at Kom Tuman in Graeco-Roman Period which is also confirmed by other sources. The study of archaeological pottery and of papyri found in the city of Memphis and in adjacent necropoleis shows that even after the foundation of the new Ptolemaic capital Alexandria, Memphis was not abandoned but continued for centuries to be a major administrative and cultic centre. The article includes the catalogue of 15 lamps with descriptions and illustrations.

Keywords: Memphis, Ptolemaic Period, Roman Period, oil lamp, wheel-made lamps, moulded lamps.

For citation: Yarmolovich V. I., Chepel E. Yu. Terracotta Oil Lamps from Graeco-Roman Memphis. Vestnik Instituta vostokovedenija RAN. 2020. 4. Pp. 70–85. DOI: 10.31696/2618-7302-2020-4-70-85

ГЛИНЯНЫЕ СВЕТИЛЬНИКИ ИЗ ГРЕКО-РИМСКОГО МЕМФИСА

В. И. Ярмолович, Е. Ю. Чепель

В статье рассматриваются 15 глиняных светильников, обнаруженных в ходе археологических раскопок, проводимых Центром египтологических исследований Российской

академии наук на Ком-Тумане (Мемфис, Египет). Бóльшая часть этих светильников была выполнена в специальных формах-матрицах, и лишь одна — на гончарном круге. Для производства светильников были использованы различные сорта местных египетских глин. Многие из них украшены различными декоративными мотивами, такими как пальметты, дельфины, факелы, и предположительно, «македонский щит». Ареал аналогичных светильников покрывает территорию всего Египта; равным образом они встречаются среди материалов археологических раскопок некоторых сопредельных стран. Мемфисские светильники, которым посвящена настоящая статья, были обнаружены в переотложенных слоях, поэтому для уточнения их датировки были привлечены аналогии с других памятников. Они позволяют отнести изучаемые предметы к Птолемеевскому и Римскому периоду (III в. до н. э. — III в. н. э.). Археологический контекст светильников указывает на то, что их могли использовать в быту и в храмах для освещения помещений. Светильники свидетельствуют о жизнедеятельности на территории памятника в греко-римский период, что уже не раз демонстрировали другие источники. Исследования археологической керамики и папирусов, найденных на городище и его некрополях, показали, что даже после основания новой столицы — Александрии — Мемфис не был заброшен и продолжал существовать как крупный административный и культовый центр на протяжении нескольких столетий, включая период римского завоевания Египта. Статья включает в себя каталог 15 светильников с описаниями и иллюстрациями.

Ключевые слова: Мемфис, Птолемеевский период, Римский период, светильники, гончарные светильники, формы-матрицы.

Для цитирования: Ярмолович В. И., Чепель Е. Ю. Глиняные светильники из греко-римского Мемфиса. Вестник Института востоковедения РАН. 2020. № 4. С. 70–85. DOI: 10.31696/2618-7302-2020-4-70-85

Ancient Egyptians used various types of lamps for lightning along with torches and light produced from hearths and fireplaces. Ceramic oil lamps were also one of the main modes of illumination in antiquity. They were applied in domestic and public contexts. In temples and sanctuaries, lamps were not only used as artificial light during ritual events but also served as votive objects. Lamp-lit religious ceremonies in Egypt were known from Pharaonic times and preserved its symbolic meaning during the rise of Christianity and the Byzantine Period. In Graeco-Roman Period of Egyptian history, oil lamps became an everyday object of mass production, affordable for all social strata. This can be explained by the growing accessibility of oil since Late Period and by the new method of mould production. The technology of producing oil lamps with the wheel was developed in archaic Greece and continued into Classical and Hellenistic periods throughout the Hellenised world. The innovative method of lamp production from two-piece moulds first appeared in Greece in the early 3rd century B.C. and quickly became popular in the Mediterranean region, replacing wheel-made lamps. The moulded lamps were cheaper to produce; they were also stronger than wheel-made lamps.

Written sources allow us to reconstruct how lamps were used by ancient Egyptians. Herodotus mentioned the oil lamps and “the Feast of Lamps”: “At Sais, when the assembly takes place for the sacrifices, there is one night on which the inhabitants all burn a multitude of lights in the open air round their houses. They use lamps in the shape of flat saucers filled with a mixture of oil and salt, on the top of which the wick floats. These burn the whole night, and give to the festival the name of the Feast of Lamps. The Egyptians who are absent from the festival observe the night of the sacrifice, no less than the rest, by a general lighting of lamps; so that the illumination is not confined to the city of Sais, but extends over the whole of Egypt. And there is a religious reason assigned for the special honour paid to this night, as well as for the illumination which accompanies it” [Herod., 2. 62]. The archaeologists find dishes and plates with soot traces as well as torches during the excavations at different sites of Pharaonic period [Malykh, 2015, p. 125, fig. 8].

In papyrological sources, lamps are often mentioned in a context of a temple or ritual event. In a register of sacred land plots from Memphis, the plot of a priest “in charge of the lamp” (ὑπολόγος λύχνου) of the greatest god Ptah (Hephaistos) is mentioned (110 B.C., [BGU 6. 1216, 131])[2]; and in the archive of Recluses of the Serapeum of Memphis, lamp-wicks (158 B.C., [P. Mil. 2. 27, 26] and 156 B.C., [UPZ 1. 101, 6]) and lamp-stands (158 B.C., [UPZ 1. 99, 7]) are listed among regular expenses. A Demotic document from Memphis reports the delivery of castor oil (kiki) for the cult of Imhotep-Asklepios and Astarte, with a Greek title “copy (sc. of account) of lamps” written on the verso (63 B.C., [UPZ 1. 143]). The great variety of mundane lighting purposes of oil lamps can be seen from an account recording daily distribution of castor oil during the first two months of 256 B.C. from the office of the dioiketes Apollonios [P. Corn. 1]. In Roman time, oil lamps continued to be mentioned in documents concerning cult: priests in Narmouthis (198 A.D., [SB 28. 16940, 6–7]) and in Soknopaiou Nesos (138 A.D., [Stud. Pal. 22. 183, 103]) used oil daily for lychnapsia of the gods, i. e. illumination of the temple, and lychnokaia is listed among religious festivals in the Fayum in 1st–2nd centuries A.D. [BGU 20. 2875, ii, 4, 14]. Equally, oil lamps were used in secular contexts, for instance, for night work on irrigation systems (113 A.D., [SB 26. 16652]).

The aim of this article is to publish a group of oil lamps from Kom Tuman, Memphis, that are all mould-made, with one exception, and represent different types of lamp production in Egypt, from wheel-made and moulded Hellenistic lamps to Roman “frog” lamps. All the lamps discussed in this article were found during the excavations of the Centre for Egyptological Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences[3] at Kom Tuman. For none of them proper archaeological context can be established as they were found in mixed layers and robbers’ pits.

Since most of the lamps presented in this paper are fragmented (nozzles and bases, parts of the bodies), it excluded the possibility to build typology of these lamps at Kom Tuman. In order to reconstruct and date these lamps we use the lamps published in archaeological reports, special studies and the museum catalogues. All descriptions of the lamps are given in the catalogue in the end of this paper.

Wheel-made lamps

The wheel-made lamp KT 13/S/0039 (fig. 1) has rounded walls, carinated body, and low ring base. Its rounded spout is attached to the walls, above the carination. The upper part of the lamp and the handle are lost. The three holes are pierced above the wick-hole. Outer and inner surfaces are covered with red slip; the outer surface is burnished, including the surface of the bottom.

The lamps of this type (“jug” lamps) have flaring rounded or subangular rim; usually, the neck is concave; some examples are neckless, with round or carinated body, and ring or flat base. The handle is usually oval or double-ribbed vertical and can be attached to the rim and body at rear or on the side; alternatively, a round vertical handle is attached under the rim and/or to the upper part of the body. The nozzle is attached to the upper part of the body. Above the wick-holes, small holes are pierced in several rows. The nozzle of Memphite lamp is attached to the lower part of the body. D. Bailey suggested that this morphological feature was typical of later variants of this shape. Most of the lamps of this type were shaped on a potter’s wheel. However, J. Młynarczyk reports about mould-made “jug” lamps found at Tell Atrib.

Fig. 1. Wheel-made lamp from Memphis

(photos and drawings of S. V. Ivanov, E. G. Tolmacheva, V. I. Yarmolovich)

Such wheel-made “jug” lamps were found in Egypt both at necropolises and in cities: at Edfu, Ehnasya (Heracleopolis Magna), Tell el-Fara’in (Buto), Fayoum oasis, Tell Atrib, Alexandria, Naukratis; and in other Mediterranean countries, Turkey (Antioch-on-the-Orontes) and Israel (Beth Shan). In all these contexts, wheel-made lamps are rare in comparison with mould-made lamps.

The lamp KT 13/S/0039 is made of fine dense Nile silt fabric with rare round sand quartz, common fine limestone and black mineral particles. The break is 10R 6/6 (light red) and 2.5YR 5/8 (red). The lamps from the collection of the British Museum are covered with slip of brown, brown-black, purplish-brown or weak red (10R 5/4) colours. The Memphite lamp has red slip (close to 7.5R 6/8, light red).

As to the fabric, the lamps of this type from the excavations of the Egypt Exploration Society in Tell el-Fara’in (Buto), now in the collection of the British Museum, are definitely composed of other clay. It contains some mica and/or grits which fires to light brown, brown or buff colours. Moreover, the fabric of the lamp Q531 from the British Museum is determined as “similar to the products of the local kilns 9, 11, and 13, which probably date to the third or second century B.C.” and indicates that this lamp was produced locally in Buto. The lamp from the J. Paul Getty Museum is made of coarse clay of 2.5YR 5/4 (reddish-brown) colour. Basing on this comparison we can suggest that our lamp was produced in a centre of ceramic production different from Buto.

Mould-made lamps

This group comprises complete or fragmentary mould-made lamps from Kom Tuman. In our description, lamps are grouped according to the shape of the body and the base in section, the nozzle top, and the presence/absence of the lug-handles.

KT 07/0131 (fig. 2) has a circular body with sharp carination and ring base; the nozzle is flat-topped, with a splayed end. The filling hole is surrounded by two ridges; there is a line of short stripes on the body. The top of the nozzle is decorated with two parallel ridges and a club-shaped object or a torch (?). There are traces of burning on the wick-hole. The body is partly broken.

This lamp comes from the surface and has no datable archaeological context. Lamps of a similar shape were found during the excavations at Tell Atrib and are dated to the middle — the second half of the 2nd century B.C. [Młynarczyk, 2012, p. 98–99, fig. 26 (TA 98/100, TA 92/192, and especially TA 94/69)]. However, the decoration of KT 07/0131 is different from one of the Tell Atrib lamps and resembles the motifs on the lamps KT 05-06/0044, KT 05-06/0018, KT 13/0027/013, and KT 03-04/0143, which are dated to the second half of the 2nd–1st centuries B.C.[4] Therefore, we can — with some caution — date the lamp KT 07/0131 to the 2nd–1st centuries B.C.

KT 07/0053/014 (fig. 2) is a miniature oil lamp. It has an ovoid body with flat-topped nozzle and rounded ends. The body is squat rounded; the base has a flat shape. The quality of this lamp is rather rough. During the Roman Period, such lamps and clay lanterns were in use also in other Mediterranean regions (for example, Anatolia and Cyprus) as well as in Egypt.[5] D. Bailey has interpreted such miniature lamp in his catalogue as toy or votive object [Bailey, 1975, p. 276 (Q 601. EA)]. There is some evidence that such miniature oil lamps used to be placed outdoors in special terracotta holders which served as protective containers.[6]

The lamp KT 07/0053/014 was found in a mixed assemblage that can be dated to time from the middle of the 6th century B.C. to Ptolemaic Period. All known parallels are not dated to earlier than the 1st century B.C., for instance, lamps from the British Museum [Bailey, 1975, p. 260, pl. 109 (Q 560. EA, Q 563. EA), 271, pl. 112 (Q 587), 276, pl. 113 (Q 601. EA), 277, pl. 114 (Q 605. EA)]. D. Bailey points out that most miniature lamps from Egypt are dated to the 2nd or 1st centuries B.C. [Bailey, 1988, p. 222]. Miniature lamps with a clay lamp-holder from the Petrie Museum[7] and the British Museum are dated to Early Roman Period. We can, therefore, suggest that the lamp KT 07/0053/014 is dated to the 2nd–1st centuries B.C., i. e. to the end of Ptolemaic Period — the beginning of Roman Period.

KT 02/0139 (fig. 2) is the lower part of another miniature lamp with a disc base. A red slip, partly eroded, covers the outer surface. This lamp was found out of its original context and does not have any diagnostic features (for example, decoration); therefore, it can be dated with some caution to the 2nd–1st century B.C.

Fig. 2. Mould-made lamps from Memphis

(photos and drawings of B. Boimoreau, S. V. Ivanov, E. G. Tolmacheva, O. V. Windholz, V. I. Yarmolovich)

The lamp KT 05-06/0043 (fig. 2) has a sharp carinated body and a disc base. The upper part of this lamp is decorated with an ornament of “rays”. The same ornament covers the lamp KT 13/S/0040a, so it is possible to assign it to the same type. The fabrics are almost identical. The ornamental motif of “rays” was popular in Egypt and Cyprus. Cypriote lamps are dated to the 3rd and sometimes to the 2nd centuries B.C. [Bailey, 1975, p. 229–230; Młynarczyk, 1978, p. 249–250], while Egyptian examples are later – the 2nd and probably 1st centuries B.C. [Bailey, 1975, p. 229–230; Młynarczyk, 2012, p. 76]. Lamps decorated with “rays” have several various shapes and other additional ornaments;[8] the closest parallels to our lamps are those with round bodies decorated with simple radiating “rays”.

The lamp KT 05-06/0118 (fig. 2) is slightly carinated in section. The base has a disc shape. The filling-hole is surrounded by two ridges. The shoulder of the lamp is decorated with a relief depiction of a dolphin. Two volutes indicate that the nozzle was decorated. There is an incised potter’s mark “XI” or “IX” on the base of the lamp which could be two Greek letters, chi and iota, or a Roman numeral.

This lamp definitely can be attributed as one of the “dolphin lamps”, as called by Petrie. Lamps of this group have various shapes and motifs: some, like KT 05-06/0118, have a rather simple decoration that consists of a dolphin and/or a torch [Petrie, 1905, pl. LX.24], while others are decorated more lavishly [Młynarczyk, 2012, fig. 17 (TA 95/68); Petrie, 1905, pl. LX.10, 20, LXIXA.V7]. By the combination of motifs, the lamp from Kom Tuman is very close to the lamps from the British Museum [Bailey, 1975, pl. 113 (Q 596, Q 597)] and one from Cyprus [Młynarczyk, 1978, p. 251–252 (cat. no.41)]. D. Bailey presumably dated the lamps of this group to the 1st century B.C. [Bailey, 1975, p. 274–275]. Młynarczyk dated the Cypriote lamp to the second half of the 2nd century B.C. [Młynarczyk, 1978, p. 251–252 (cat. no.41)].

KT 07/0034 (fig. 2) is a fragment of a lamp which, despite its small size, can be determined as belonging to a cluster of lamps decorated with “groups of raised semicircles and points” in Bailey’s terminology, or with “Macedonian ornament” to use Młynarczyk’s term [Bailey, 1975, p. 241; Młynarczyk, 1978, p. 335–336; Młynarczyk, 2012, p. 71–73]. D. Bailey dated these lamps to time from the second half of the 1st century B.C. to the 1st century A.D. [Bailey, 1975, p. 262 (Q 565)], while Młynarczyk suggested an earlier date between the late 2nd century and the second half of the 1st century B.C. [Młynarczyk, 2012, p. 72].

Lamps with lug-handles

The lamp KT 07/0053/013 (fig. 3) has a body with sharp carination and ring base. The filling-hole is surrounded with two ridges. This lamp does not have any decoration.

The lamp KT IX/0015 (fig. 3) has a horseshoe-shaped body. Probably, in section the body is slightly carinated; the base could be “pseudo-ring” (?). The flat-topped, short, conical nozzle has a small wick-hole. The upper surface is decorated probably with a palm motif which is executed in a simple but careful technique. An alpha is impressed on the base.

This lamp belongs to a well-known “frog type” of lamps which can be decorated with various motifs: a frog, a palm, an egg, and as additional element with a boss.[9] The style of the depictions could be either naturalistic or stylized [Młynarczyk, 2012, p. 124]. The lamps of this group can have different morphological features, namely, various shapes of the bodies and nozzles.[10] They are attested at many sites in Egypt, including Mons Claudianus, Coptos (Qift), Ehnasya, Tell Atrib, Thebes (including the valley of the Queens), Kharga oasis, Naukratis, Ashmunein, Antinoe, Alexandria, Memphis, as well as in Nubia [Babraj, Szymańska, 2000, p. 191] (see comparanda of the type in the catalogue).

Fig. 3. Mould-made lamps from Memphis

(photos and drawings of B. Boimoreau, S. V. Ivanov, E. G. Tolmacheva, O. V. Windholz, V. I. Yarmolovich)

The scholars have different opinions on the period when these lamps first appeared. E. Cahn-Klaiber suggested that the production of the “frog type” started at the end of the 1st century B.C. — 1st century A.D. [Cahn-Klaiber, 1977, p. 160–169]. W.M.F. Petrie found some lamps of this type in Ehnasya and dated the earliest of them to the 1st century A.D. basing on the archaeological context [Petrie, 1905, p. 10]. The lamps found at Coptos came from the contexts dated to the 10th century B.C. — no later than the 1st century A.D. [Herbert, Berlin, 2003, p. 101–102]. At first, D. Bailey denied such early dating of these lamps [Bailey, 1988, p. 226–227]. However, after a visit to the excavations at Mons Claudianus, where many lamps had been found in secure archaeological contexts, he accepted Petrie’s and Cahn-Klaiber’s point of view [Bailey, 1991, p. 41–42]. The production of these lamps continued until the 4th century A.D. [Bailey, 1991, p. 41; Młynarczyk, 2012, p. 123–124].

The moulds used for the production of the “frog-type” lamps can be also helpful for dating [Młynarczyk, 2012, p. 124]. For instance, two moulds from Naukratis and Tell Atrib might have been used for the production of oil lamps with a horseshoe-shaped body and a nozzle with a splayed end (Bailey’s “Neo-Hellenistic type” or Młynarczyk’s type S.a). According to J. Młynarczyk, these objects could not be dated later that the 2nd century A.D. since the shapes of lamps had Hellenistic prototypes.[11] However, D. Bailey dated the moulds and, hence, also lamps produced in them, to the 3rd and 4th centuries A.D. [Bailey, 1988, p. 255 (Q 2102EA)].

The best-dated lamps of the same shape or with the same motif come from Mons Claudianus (type B2.5a) [Knowles, 2006, p. 345–346 (cat. no.37)]. Knowles determined that type B2 can be dated no earlier than Hadrianic Period, i. e. these lamps might belong to the second quarter of the 2nd century A.D. [Knowles, 2006, p. 338]. Lamps from Naukratis as well as from the collection of the Archaeological Museum in Kracow and the J. Paul Getty Museum, which are also close to the lamp from Kom Tuman, have the dating of 3rd and 4th centuries A.D.

The lamps KT 05-06/0044, KT 05-06/0018, KT 05-06/0044, KT 13/0027/013, KT 03-04/0143, KT 18/0001/001, and KT 05-06/0056 (fig. 3) from Kom Tuman is close to the type TA II.12 in Młynarczyk’s study of oil lamps from Tell Atrib. These lamps have two lug-handles on the body and splayed nozzles. Their nozzles are decorated with torches and the ridges and volutes [Młynarczyk, 2012, p. 88–93]. This type was widespread in Lower Egypt, including Alexandria, Naukratis, Tell Atrib, Memphis, Saqqara, and Abou Roash, and also found at the sites of Upper Egypt: Ehansya, Luxor, Edfu, Elephantine.[12] These lamps are typical production of the workshops of the Ptolemaic Period. Generally, these lamps are dated to the end of the 3rd–1st centuries B.C.[13] D. Bailey suggested that one of the lamps [Bailey, 1975, p. 272–273 (Q 592)] could be dated to the late 2nd or 1st centuries B.C. [Bailey, 1975, p. 272–273]. At the same time, J. Młynarczyk suggested dating the lamps of that type from Tell Atrib to the 3rd or early 2nd centuries B.C. [Młynarczyk, 1988, p. 332].

The lamp KT 05-06/0044 is almost complete, with a part of the shoulder missing. The body has two angular side lug handles, a flat-topped nozzle with a splayed end and a disc-shaped base. The top of the nozzle is decorated probably with a rectangular torch between two voluted ridges. The lines of the motif are blurred, which allows us to assume that the lamp was made in a worn mould.

KT 05-06/0018 is a nozzle of a lamp. The nozzle has a flat top; the end is splayed and rounded. The top of the lamp is decorated with a rectangular torch between two ridges with volutes. A line of bars is preserved on the upper part of the body.

KT 13/0027/013 and KT 03-04/143 are fragments of the nozzles which have a splayed shape with tops ornamented with a rectangular object resembling a torch. Two further fragments, KT 18/0001/001 and KT 05-06/056 are lower parts of the lamps with two lug-handles on the body and disc shape bases, so we do not know how they were decorated. They are presumably attributed to the same type on the basis of its shape.

Conclusions

The majority of the lamps from archaeological excavations of the CES RAS studied in this paper are typical of the Hellenistic Period of Egyptian history. The local (Nile silt-based and Marl clays) fabrics were used for their production. The lamps of the same shape, which are decorated with the same motifs, are distributed throughout Egypt: from Alexandria to Elephantine and the Eastern desert sites (such as Mons Claudianus). One Roman lamp has typical features of that period which indicates that the production and the use of oil lamps were widespread in Memphis during Roman time as well. These lamps should be considered together with other ceramic fragments found at Kom Tuman that can be dated to the Roman Period[14] as evidence of Roman presents in the city.

The general urban context of finds at Kom Tuman might suggest utilitarian use in private and public spheres rather than ritual use in a temple. However, the latter cannot be excluded since Memphis is famous for its temples (the Temple of Ptah, the Temple of Mitra) which were located nearby.

THE CATALOGUE OF MEMPHIS LAMPS

d.b. — diameter of the base

l. — length

w. — width 

p.h. — preserved height

h. — height

Wheel-made lamps

Inv. no.: KT 13/S/0039 (fig. 1).

Dimensions: d.b. = 4 cm, p.ht. = 5.4 cm.

Place of find: square VII, surface.

Surface treatment: the outer surface is covered with red slip and burnished.

Clay fabric: fine dense Nile silt fabric with rare round sand quartz, common fine limestone and same black mineral particles.

Colour of fabric: bipartite, 10R 6/6 (light red) and 2.5YR 5/8 (red).

Comparanda: [Bailey, 1975, p. 249–150 (Q 530.EA–Q 532.EA), pl. 106–107; The British Museum’s collection: 2011,5016.3. URL: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/G_2011-5016-3 (accessed on 10.11.2020), GR.217.1899. URL: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/X__22 (accessed on 10.11.2020); Bussière, Wohl, 2017, p. 368 (cat. no.510); Grenfell, Hunt, Hogarth, 1900, pl. X.7; Petrie, 1905, p. 13 (N. neck lamps), pl. LXIX (cat. no.66–68); Waagé, 1941, p. 62 (type 26, no.78, fig. 82); Michałowski, Linage, Manteuffel, Sainte Fare Garnot, 1938, pl. XXXIII.19; Młynarczyk, 2012, p. 114–115 (TA II.20), fig. 30 (95/116p); The Petrie Museum: UC54153. URL: http://petriecat.museums.ucl.ac.uk/search.aspx (accessed on 10.11.2020)].

General date of the shape: 3rd–2nd centuries B.C.

Date of the lamp: 2nd century B.C.

Mould-made lamps

Lamps without lug-handles

Inv. no.: KT IX/0015 (fig. 3).

Dimensions: l. = ca. 9.5 cm, w. = ca. 8.8 cm, d.b. = ca. 4 cm.

Place of find: square IX, surface.

Surface treatment: uncoated.

Clay fabric: light-coloured clay (a marl-based fabric?).

Comparanda of the type: [Knowles, 2006, p. 329, fig. 5.1 (9), p. 340–347, fig. 5.3–5.4; Herbert, Berlin, 2003, p. 102, 105, 107, fig. 79 (R1.36), 82 (R1.36); Lecyout, 1996, p. 157, pl. IV (fig. c); Boriak, Naguib, 2013, p. 151 (KB76), 152 (KB77, KB78); The British Museum: GR.27.1899 (from Naukratis). URL: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/X__24 (accessed on 10.11.2020), NCM 1888–51. URL: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/X__2152 (accessed on 10.11.2020), 1886.31.4. URL: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/X__2187 (accessed on 10.11.2020), Młynarczyk, 2012, p. 129–137, fig. 35–38; Petrie, 1905, p. 9–11, pl. LXI, LXIII, LXIV, LXV, LXVI; Dixneuf, 2013, p. 425–428 (cat. no.348–354); Babraj, Szymańska, 2000, p. 188, 191–193; Dunand et al., 1992, pl. I.1; Spencer, Bailey, Burnett, 1983, p. 10–11, 60; Anthes, 1956, p. 48, pl. 30 (c.224, d.224)].

General date of the type: probably, the end of the 1st century B.C. or the end of the 1st–4th centuries A.D.

Comparanda of a similar shape and/or motif: [Babraj, Szymańska, 2000, p. 192–193; The British Museum: 1886.31.4 (from Naukratis). URL: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/X__2187 (accessed on 10.11.2020); Bailey, 1988, p. 263–264, pl. 50 (Q 2178 MLA, Q 2187 MLA, Q 2188 EA); Knowles, 2006, p. 346, fig. 5.4 (37); Bussière, Wohl, 2017, p. 366–367 (cat. no.508)].

Date of a similar shape: from the second quarter of the 2nd to the 4th centuries A.D.

Commentary: letter alpha on the bottom.

Inv. no.: KT 07/0053/014 (fig. 2).

Dimensions: l. = 5.6 cm, w. = 2.95 cm.

Place of find: square VI.T12, filling of the robbers’ pit, loose silt.

Dating of assemblage: from the middle of 6th century B.C. to the Ptolemaic Period.

Surface treatment: uncoated, partly smoothed.

Clay fabric: fine Nile silt-based fabric (?). Several fine particles of vegetable temper are visible on the outer surface. Light brown colour.

Comparanda: [Bailey, 1975, pl. 109 (Q 560. EA, Q 563. EA), 112 (Q 587), 113 (Q 601 EA), 114 (Q 605 EA); Bussière, Wohl, 2017, p. 48 (cat. no.54–55); The Petrie Museum: UC50626A-B, UC50723. URL: http://petriecat.museums.ucl.ac.uk/search.aspx (accessed on 10.11.2020); Petrie, 1905, p. 8, pl. LVI.46, LIX.90, 92].

Dating of comparanda: 2nd–1st centuries B.C.

Date of the lamp: 1st century B.C.

Inv. no.: KT 02/0139 (fig. 2).

Dimensions: l. = 6 cm, d.b. = 3.9 cm.

Place of find: square VIII, surface find.

Surface treatment: red slip.

Comparanda: see comparanda for KT 07/0053/014.

Date of the lamp: 2nd–1st centuries B.C. (?) or Early Roman Period.

Inv. no.: KT 07/0131 (fig. 2).

Place of find: square VI, surface.

Surface treatment: red slip on the outer surface, stains of this slip on the bottom.

Clay fabric: fine dense Nile silt fabric containing common fine black mineral particles and rare fine mica.

Colour of fabric: zoned, core is pinkish violet, the outer zones are 2.5YR 6/8 (light red).

Comparanda: [Młynarczyk, 2012, p. 98–99, fig. 26 (TA 98/100, TA 92/192, TA 94/69)].

Dating of comparanda: before the middle and to the second half of the 2nd century B.C.

Dating of the lamp: 2nd century B.C., or to the second half of the 2nd to 1st centuries B.C.

Commentary: traces of burning on the nozzle.

Inv. No: KT 05-06/0043 (fig. 2).

Dimensions: w. = 5 cm, h. = 2.2 cm, d.b. = 2.2 cm.

Place of find: square VII.B-12/A-12, pottery assemblage in the layer filled with shells and pieces of pottery.

Dating of assemblage: mostly 5th–4th centuries B.C. with some earlier (6th–5th centuries B.C.) and later (the Ptolemaic and Roman Periods) intrusions (pottery assemblage KT 13/0041).

Surface treatment: the upper part is covered with red slip, the lower part is uncoated, stains of red slip.

Clay fabric: fine sandy Nile silt-based fabric with common fine mica, very rare fine round sand quartz.

Colour of fabric: homogeneous 7.5YR 6/6 (reddish yellow).

Same shape and motif: [Młynarczyk, 2012, fig. 20 (TA 93/55p)].

Comparanda: [Bailey, 1975, p. 229–230, pl. 99 (Q501, Q 503, Cyprus), pl. 108 (Q 552. EA); Młynarczyk, 1978, p. 249–250 (inv. no.30–31, with lug handle — dating to about 150 B.C.), fig. 2 (30–31, Cyprus); Młynarczyk, 2012, p. 76, fig. 20 (TA 93/55p); Petrie, 1905, pl. LXI.86, 88].

Dating of comparanda: 2nd century B.C., or perhaps into the 1st century B.C.

Date of the lamp: from the 2nd to the 1st centuries B.C.

Inv. no.: KT 13/S/0040a.

Dimensions:

Place of find: square VII, surface.

Surface treatment: red slip on both surfaces.

Clay fabric: fine sandy Nile silt fabric with common fine mica.

Colour of fabric: homogeneous 7.5YR 5/6 (strong brown).

Comparanda: see comparanda for KT 05-06/0043.

Date of the lamp: from the 2nd to the 1st centuries B.C.

Inv. no.: KT 05-06/0118 (fig. 2).

Dimensions: w. = 5.5 cm, h. = 2.85 cm, d.b. = ca. 3.10 cm.

Place of find: square VII.B-11, “Ptolemaic” trench beside the limestone “basin”.

Dating of assemblage: from late Ptolemaic to Roman Period.

Surface treatment: the upper part is covered with red slip, the lower part is uncoated, stains of red slip.

Clay fabric: medium fine medium dense Nile silt fabric with very common fine sand quartz, common fine mica, rare fine black mineral particles.

Colour of fabric: homogeneous 5YR 5/6 (yellowish red).

Comparanda: [Petrie, 1905, pl. LX.26, 36; The Petrie Museum: UC 54279. URL: http://petriecat.museums.ucl.ac.uk/search.aspx (accessed on 10.11.2020); Młynarczyk, 1978, p. 252 (cat. no.41); Bailey, 1975, p. 274–275, pl. 113 (Q 596, Q 597)].

Dating of comparanda: from the second half of the 2nd to the 1st centuries B.C.

Date of the lamp: from the second half of the 2nd to the 1st centuries B.C.

Inv. no.: KT 07/0034 (fig. 2).

Dimensions:

Place of find: square VI.T-12, mixed layer.

Surface treatment: red slip on both surfaces.

Clay fabric: fine sandy Nile silt fabric with common fine mica, rare fine black mineral particles.

Colour of fabric: bipartite (2.5R 5/8 (red) and violet).

Comparanda: [Bailey, 1975, p. 241, pl. 110 (Q 565–570), The British Museum: P.4854. URL: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/X__4043 (accessed on 10.11.2020); Petrie, 1905, pl. LVIII.10, 14, 18, 20, 24, 28, 35, 40, 45; 1911, pl. XV.15; Młynarczyk, 1978, p. 335–336, 338, 342, fig. 9b–c, 13a; 2012, p. 72–73, fig. 19 (TA 86/141, 91/9)].

Dating of comparanda: probably from the second half of the 1st century B.C. to the 1st century A.D. / between the late 2nd and the second half of the 1st centuries B.C.

Date of the lamp: probably from the second half of the 1st century B.C. to the 1st century A.D.

Lamps with two lug-handles

Inv. no.: KT 07/0053/013 (fig. 3).

Dimensions: h. = 2.65 cm, d.b. = ca. 3 cm.

Place of find: square VI. T-12, filling of the robber’s pit, loose silt.

Dating of assemblage:

Surface treatment: red slip covers outer surface.

Clay fabric: fine dense Nile silt fabric with rare fine mica.

Colour of fabric: zoned (the core is black, the outer zones are 2.5YR 6/8 (light red)).

Close to: [Młynarczyk, 2012, fig. 9 (especially 92/27), 10 (especially 89/85), 11–12 (94/85p), 13; Bailey, 1975, Q 542, Q 545].

Dating of comparanda: 3rd–2nd centuries B.C.; between 220 and to the middle of the 2nd century B.C. (Athribis).

Inv. no.: KT 05-06/0044 (fig. 3).

Dimensions: l. = 15.4 cm, h. = 2.9 cm, d.b. = ca. 3.0 cm.

Place of find: square VII.B-12. In the upper layer of the ballast 2, between walls 31, 33, 34 of the building 2.

Dating of the pottery from this area: mostly 5th–4th centuries B.C. with some earlier (6th–5th centuries B.C.) and later (Ptolemaic and Roman Periods) intrusions (pottery assemblage KT 13/0041).

Surface treatment: both surfaces are uncoated, burnished.

Clay fabric: fine dense Nile silt fabric with common fine mica, rare medium-sized angular sand quartz, common fine black mineral particles.

Colour of fabric: the break is zoned (the core is 2.5YR 6/8 (light red), the outer zones are 7.5YR 6/6 (reddish yellow)).

Comparanda: [Młynarczyk, 2012, p. 88–93 (cat. no.145–154); Bailey, 1975, p. 272–273, pl. 112 (Q 592); Młynarczyk, 1988, p. 334, 337, fig. 4a, 4d, 8c; Petrie, 1905, pl. LVI.r, LIX.43, 70, 76, 80, 86; 1910, pl. XXXIII.7, LX.51; The British Museum: 1987.383. URL: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/X__1001 (accessed on 10.11.2020), A. 49.-8-0. URL: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/X__1003 (accessed on 10.11.2020), NCM 1888-47. URL: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/X__2156 (accessed on 10.11.2020), 11.45914. URL: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/X__345 (accessed on 10.11.2020), 11.45913. URL: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/X__346 (accessed on 10.11.2020), GR.218.1899. URL: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/X__4822 (accessed on 10.11.2020)].

Dating of comparanda: 2nd century B.C. (Młynarczyk) / the second half of the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C. / the late 3rd — early 1st centuries B.C.

Date of the lamp: from the second half of the 2nd to the 1st centuries B.C.

Commentary: traces of burning around wick-hole and filling-hole.

Inv. no.: KT 05-06/0018 (fig. 3).

Dimensions:

Place of find: square VII.B-11, layer under debris over the wall 23 to the east from the wall 14.

Dating of assemblage: from late Ptolemaic Period to Roman Period.

Surface treatment: red slip on the outer surface.

Clay fabric: fine sand Nile silt fabric with rare medium limestone, rare fine mica.

Colour of fabric: homogeneous 2.5YR 5/8 (red).

Comparanda: see comparanda for KT 05-06/0044.

Dating of comparanda: 2nd century B.C. / the second half of the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C. / the late 3rd — early 1st centuries B.C.

Date of the lamp: from the second half of the 2nd to the 1st centuries B.C.

Inv. no.: KT 13/0027/013 (fig. 3).

Dimensions:

Place of find: square VII.ABC13, debris.

Surface treatment: uncoated, burnished.

Clay fabric: fine dense Marl fabric with fine black mineral particles.

Colour of fabric: homogeneous colour lighter than 2.5Y 6/3 (light yellowish brown).

Comparanda: see comparanda for KT 05-06/0044.

Commentary: traces of burning around wick-hole.

Dating of comparanda: 2nd century B.C. / the second half of the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C. / the late 3rd — early 1st centuries B.C.

Date of the lamp: from the second half of the 2nd to the 1st centuries B.C.

Inv. no.: KT 03-04/0143 (fig. 3).

Dimensions:

Place of find: square VII.C-11, mixed layer to the east of the wall 14.

Surface treatment: red slip.

Clay fabric: Nile silt based fabric (?).

Comparanda: see comparanda for KT 05-06/0044.

Dating of comparanda: 2nd century B.C. / the second half of the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C. / the late 3rd — early 1st centuries B.C.

Date of the lamp: from the second half of the 2nd to the 1st centuries B.C.

Commentary: traces of burning near the wick-hole.

Inv. no.: KT 18/0001/001 (fig. 3).

Dimensions: l. = 7.1 cm, d.b. = 2 cm.

Place of find: square VI.T12-T13, surface.

Surface treatment: smooth, stains of red slip.

Clay fabric: very fine dense Nile silt fabric with rare fine sand quartz.

Colour of fabric: homogeneous 5YR 5/6 (yellowish red).

Comparanda: see comparanda for KT 05-06/0044. Additionally, [Młynarczyk, 1988, p. 337, fig. 8a–b].

Dating of comparanda: 2nd century B.C. / the second half of the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C. / the late 3rd — early 1st centuries B.C.

Date of the lamp: 2nd and 1st centuries B.C.

Inv. no.: KT 05-06/0056 (fig. 3).

Dimensions: d.b. = 2.5 cm.

Place of find: square VII.B-11, layer under debris to the east from the wall 14 over the walls 23 and 30.

Dating of assemblage:

Surface treatment: uncoated, the outer surface is burnished.

Clay fabric: fine very dense Nile silt fabric with common fine mica.

Colour of fabric: zoned (the core is black with violet, the outer zones are 2.5YR 6/8 (light red)).

Comparanda: see comparanda for KT 05-06/0044. Additionally, [Młynarczyk, 1988, p. 337, fig. 8a–b].

Dating of comparanda: 2nd century B.C. / the second half of the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C. / the late 3rd — early 1st centuries B.C.

Date of the lamp: 2nd and 1st centuries B.C.

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Petrie W. M. F. Roman Ehnasya (Herakleopolis Magna). 1904. Plates and Text Supplementary to Ehnasya. London, 1905.

Spencer A. J., Bailey D. M., Burnett A. Ashmunein (1982). London, 1983.

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Yarmolovich V. I., Chepel E. Yu., Achaemenid Influence on Egyptian Pottery: New Evidence from Memphis. Palarch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt / Egyptology. 2019. 16(3). Pp. 2–27.

  1. Victoria I. YARMOLOVICH, Research Fellow of the Centre for Egyptological Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; vikapottery@gmail.com

    Виктория И. Ярмолович, научный сотрудник Центра египтологических исследований РАН, Москва; vikapottery@gmail.com

    ORCID ID: 0000-0001-9306-5433

    Elena Yu. CHEPEL, PhD (History), Research Fellow of the Centre for Egyptological Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; euchepel@gmail.com

    Елена Юрьевна ЧЕПЕЛЬ, кандидат исторических наук, научный сотрудник Центра египтологических исследований РАН, Москва; euchepel@gmail.com

    ORCID ID: 0000-0003-0924-3108

    This article has been written with the financial support of the Council for grants of the President of the Russian Federation, Project МK 699.2019.6.

  2. Papyri editions are abbreviated according to John F. Oates, Roger S. Bagnall, Sarah J. Clackson, Alexandra A. O’Brien, Joshua D. Sosin, Terry G. Wilfong, and Klaas A. Worp, Checklist of Greek, Latin, Demotic and Coptic Papyri, Ostraca and Tablets. URL: http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/papyrus/texts/clist.html (accessed on 14.11.2020).

  3. CES RAS, Moscow. The results of the studies of Memphis are published in [Белова, 2009; Иванов, 2009; 2017; 2018; 2019; Ярмолович, 2017(1); 2017(2); 2017(3); 2017(4); 2019; 2020(1); Belova, 2012; Belova, Ivanov, 2016; Yarmolovich, 2015; 2018; Yarmolovich, Chepel, 2019].

  4. See the catalogue in the end of this article.

  5. See, for example, [Bailey, 1988, pl. 153 (Q 496 bis), pl. 62 (Q 2357)]. For the lanterns from Egypt see [Bailey, 1988, pl. 40].

  6. [Bailey, 1988, p. 222]. These lamp-holders are, for example: [Bailey, 1975, pl. 115 (Q 610–Q 612); 1988, p. 222, pl. 39 (Q 2000), 40 (Q 1997, Q 1998)]. EA 37504. The British Museum, London. URL: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/Y_EA37504 (accessed on 10.11.2020). 26622A, 26629A, 26630A. The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo, Egypt. UC50624, UC50625, UC50627, UC50630, UC19465. The Petrie Museum, London. URL: http://petriecat.museums.ucl.ac.uk/search.aspx (accessed on 10.11.2020).

  7. UC50626A-B. The Petrie Museum, London. URL: http://petriecat.museums.ucl.ac.uk/search.aspx (accessed on 10.11.2020).

  8. See, for instance, [Petrie, 1905, pl. LX (60–69), LXI (5, 32–35, 62–63, 67, 70, 90–91)]. The British Museum (accession number RES.86.129). URL: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/X__4042 (accessed on 10.11.2020).

  9. [Knowles, 2006, p. 337]; The British Museum. URL: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/X__2187 (accessed on 15.11.2020; currator’s commentary). Knowles’s type B from Mons Claudianus, Petrie’s types F (Frog lamps), E (Frog and Corn lamps), P (Corn and Palm lamps), and J (Joint types) from Ehnasya, Młynarczyk’s type TA III.2–TA III.3 from Tell Atrib. See: [Knowles, 2006, p. 337–348; Petrie, 1905, p. 9–11, pl. LXI, LXIII, LXIV, LXV, LXVI; Młynarczyk, 2012, p. 122–137, fig. 32–38, pl. 11 (TA III.2), 12–14, 15 (TA III.3)].

  10. For example, see subtypes of these lamps from Alexandria in [Młynarczyk, 2012, p. 122–124].

  11. [Młynarczyk, 2012, fig. 32 (89/4p, 89/9p)]. The British Museum: 1886,0401.1366. URL: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/G_1886-0401-1366 (accessed on 10.11.2020).

  12. [Młynarczyk, 2012, p. 88–89]. For analogies from Sakkara and Abou Rawash see esp. notes 280 and 281.

  13. See comparanda in the catalogue.

  14. This material remains so far unpublished but is available to the authors.